Archive for the ‘What is it all about’ Category

Is it truly made in heaven…? I mean… marriage? If it so, then… as humans… being mere mortals; how on earth are we going to manage such a sacred union work? It doesn’t sound as an easy feat now, does it… scary isn’t it…

Ok now…if the bonding is so sacred… why has many of us taken marriage – for granted, as such a simple thing?…has lack of respect towards it? beyond my understanding…really…

Why does a marriage crumble…is it the groundless relationships?… How come we are so far ahead of every thing…especially, making every other aspect in life more dimensional …yet far behind of making dependable relationships?…

Like every thing else; finding a “perfect partner” has become so easy…just a matter of placing the curser & go on typing – http://www.perfect partner.com …YUP… 

It’s already considered a thriving business for some… but yet, how far should one go… on such a fancy route I mean…on a ‘cyber drive’ … to find the romantic hero…soul mate… the ‘perfect partner – made in heaven – especially for you’?…

For me…(the ‘old fashioned one’)… it sure sounds bizarre…

A cyber romance… dies a pre mature death (in most cases)…it’s just what happens…when we ‘click’ on the most attractive ‘smiling face’ with the ‘perfect profile’ …we could assure who’s “really” smiling at us ‘Behind ‘ that smiling face on our screen just by… how exactly??…bizarre indeed…

What has happened to the time; where we suppose to meet our dream man/woman; at a romantic getaway… at a lavish party?… grand parents anniversary? at a musical…a cinema? at a birthday party…walk in the park…beach? through a mutual friend?…

It seems… we have stopped taking holidays…no time attending parties …unless the party s at a pub…oh giving the pleasure of our presence beside our grandparents on their special day? …well, not in the “to do” list any more…right?

A ‘musical’? why a ‘musical’??… when we have other ways of enjoying music? we’d rather have the i-pod to a ‘musical’ of course…why bother…hmm…isn’t life so easy when you just need to press the button on the DVD instead of walking in the rain  to a cinema?…

Yeah right…

oh where is romance? immobilized in ‘romance novels’ I suppose?…

Ok…some how if  a marriage falls apart…blame it on lack of romance/ understanding/ trust/love (whatever you mean by that word)/ in-laws/ friends influence/pressure of parenting …etc etc…then the“ happily ever after”- “until death do us apart” vows… vanish in to thin air…

But what if…these two people…meant for each other… make a mistake & go separate ways… yet by chance…they get back together again…? as if nothing went wrong?… how positively wonderful…would it authenticate “ marriage made in heaven/ a soul mate – especially for you “ thing?… so they’d say “ Oh the divorce? well… it just didn’t work out”? …

And those…the lucky ones…who hold on to their relationship…through best times & the worst…who’d say ” Get married…stay married…what a concept”…

I’d say both lucky in life…

This’ s Meryl Streep… (one of the few, whose seriously talented … & one of the few, who’s managed to live (so far) a realistic life in an unrealistic celluloid world)…talks of her marriage…her own words…

Meryl about the secret to a long-lived marriage: “Goodwill and willingness to bend—and to shut up every once in a while. There’s no road map on how to raise a family: it’s always an enormous negotiation. But I have a holistic need to work and to have huge ties of love in my life. I can’t imagine eschewing one for the other.”

Meryl about finding the right mate: “My husband understands the compulsion to create things. With somebody who had a regular job, I think it might have been harder to translate those creative impulses and the need to satisfy them … I think you have to have somebody as a partner who shares what you value in life.”

Meryl about balance in marriage: “I’m not sure we think about it as compromising as much as it is trying to keep a certain balance in the relationship. We’re lucky to have found each other, and we both recognize that. Our marriage and our four children and their future well-being inform all the decisions we make. Of course, we’re fortunate that our lives are flexible enough to accommodate everybody’s changing needs.”

Meryl about her husband Don: “I don’t know what I’d do without my husband. I’d be dead, emotionally at least, if I hadn’t met him. He’s the greatest.”

Meryl about listening: Listening is everything. Listening is the whole deal. That’s what I think. And I mean that in terms of before you work, after you work, in between work, with your children, with your husband, with your friends, with your mother, with your father. It’s everything. And it’s where you learn everything.”

Meryl about what is important learned after John’s death: “I learned what really is important. I found what is true and what’s just stupid and meaningless and not worth pursuing.”

Oh got it …so she says …”success in marriage does not come merely through finding the right mate, but through being the right mate”…?

Something to ponder…don’t you think?…


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If I’ve been fascinated by one scientific area that s forensic science.

What is it? What is forensic science all about?

“Forensic science can be simply defined as the application of science to the law. In criminal cases forensic scientists are often involved in the search for and examination of physical traces which might be useful for establishing or excluding an association between someone suspected of committing a crime and the scene of the crime or victim. Such traces commonly include blood and other body fluids, hairs, textile fibres from clothing etc, materials used in buildings such as paint and glass, footwear, tool and tyre marks, flammable substances used to start fires and so on. Sometimes the scientist will visit the scene itself to advice about likely sequence of events, any indicators as to who the perpetrator might be, and to join in the initial search for evidence. Other forensic scientists analyse suspected drugs of abuse, specimens from people thought to have taken them or to have been driving after drinking too much alcohol, or to have been poisoned. Yet others specialise in firearms, explosives, or documents whose authenticity is questioned.

In civil cases forensic scientists may become involved in some of the same sorts of examinations and analyses but directed to resolving disputes as to, for example, the cause of a fire or a road accident for which damages are being claimed.

Forensic scientists can appear for either side – prosecution or defence in criminal matters, and plaintiff or defendant in civil ones. They tend to present their findings and opinions in written form either as formal statements of evidence or reports. Sometimes they are required to attend court to give their evidence in person”.

Findings through forensic evidence…

Measuring Body Temperature

Although body temperature can vary between us as human beings, the average body temperature is around 37oC (or 98 Fahrenheit).

Measuring Temperature

Some people have varying temperatures as a result of variances in their metabolism: the higher the rate of metabolism the higher the temperature and likewise the lower the rate of metabolism the lower the body temperature.

The temperature will vary in certain areas of the human body as well. For example the temperature in the mouth will be 37oC (or 98 oC Fahrenheit) but underneath the armpit the temperature reading will be around 36.4 °C (97.6 °C Fahrenheit). Temperatures can also be taken using the tympanic method (from the ear).

By far the most accurate reading of a body temperature is the one that can be taken rectally. Although is not the most pleasant of ways in which to read someone’s temperature it is the most accurate in relation to the body’s core temperature and for this reason it is normally the most used method of determining the temperature of the decease when they are examined at the scene of a crime.


Blunt Force Trauma

Blunt force trauma is – as its name would suggest – a severe traumatic episode caused to the body or head with the sudden introduction of a blunt instrument used with great force. This can sometimes be caused by an attacker striking out at a victim with their hands, a large piece of wood, a baseball bat or other such item that would cause heavy damage to the body or skull if impacted against them quickly.

Blunt force trauma is something that is also experienced during a car accident, especially if the individuals involved are not wearing seatbelts and are catapulted forward at speed against the dashboard, steering wheel or indeed the rear of the driver and front passenger’s seats.

Blunt force trauma can also be inflicted without a great many visual indicators. A great number of individuals who die from this condition do so because of the internal injuries they have received, which may result in nothing more than some exterior bruising.


Identifying the Victim

When it comes to identifying the deceased forensic science and forensic medicine are both crucial weapons in any law enforcement agency’s armoury.

Difficulty in Identification

Identifying the victim can sometimes not be as simple as looking at their face and matching them to a description given by a worried relative or loved one. Sometimes there are extraneous forces at work, which make identifying the victim a long and laborious task.

The main reasons for difficulty in identifying the victim are:

  • Massive head trauma
  • Submergence in water for long periods of time
  • Decapitation
  • Disfigurement

All of these are of course grisly in their own right and the task of identifying a victim can be made much trickier if any of these issues arise.


Ligature Marks

Ligature marks are those marks made by an item of cord, rope, silk or some such material that has been used for the purposes of strangulation.

Ligature marks come in many different patterns and sizes and can be unique to certain fabrics and materials and this is why they are so important in criminal investigations that revolve around the strangling of a deceased individual.


Ligature Marks as Evidence

Normally strangulation is carried out by squeezing the area just about the Adam’s apple for a sustained period of time, thus crushing the windpipe and preventing the victim from being able to breathe.

Once the assailant has carried out this task it is normally only a matter of time before the victim dies if they haven’t already died during the strangulation.

Forensic scientists and Scene of Crime Officers (SOCO) will normally look for these ligature marks around the neck and will photograph them at the scene of the crime before the pathologist looks at them in more depth at the autopsy stage.

These ligature marks – as we have already mentioned – are made from the material used to strangle the victim and indeed are an imprint on the skin as a result of great force and pressure applied to them.

Ligature marks are normally dark brown in colour and have a red band on either side of these horizontal marks signifying the width of the item used to carry out strangulation.

The pathologist will also check the tongue and larynx of the victim post mortem as well as this indicates strangulation if these organs of the body are enlarged.

He or she will also look for signs of the carotid arteries being obstructed as well as damage being caused to the thyroid arteries. All of these prove useful and can tell a lot about the pressure and force applied by the perpetrator whilst strangling their victim.


New Ways to Detect Lies With Forensics

One of the most challenging tasks for a forensic expert is determining if a person is telling the truth. Over the years, all sorts of testing methods have been introduced – some eventually disregarded while others have become mainstays in forensic science.

New Techniques

In the past several years, however, new techniques have been brought forth, many promising to revolutionise the way in which we determine if a person is honest or telling a lie. In fact, a recent claim is that a new test is ninety-seven percent accurate in finding out if someone is telling lies.

Does It Work?

The test has, however, been approached with much scepticism and doubt. The technique is one that monitors the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Researchers in support of the test claim that it is the gold standard for determining if a person is lying. Those who developed the technique cite that when a person is lying, there is an increase in blood flow to the brain. In turn, oxygen levels in the brain increase.


Some of the different disciplines of forensic science have become identified primarily with law enforcement, an image that has been enhanced more recently by television series such as CSI. This is misleading because forensic scientists are involved in all aspects of criminal and civil cases as well as among others, the family courts, immigration and employment tribunals and the results of their work may serve either the prosecution, defence or either side in a hearing as well as acting more recently as a single joint expert.

Forensic science and the work of the forensic scientist does have an impact on the number of cases entering our legal system by assisting the decision makers before a case reaches the court, as the facts developed by the forensic scientist are based on scientific investigation which may convince the prosecution team that the case does not merit a trial or the defence that a guilty plea is the correct one.

The forensic science investigation at times proves the existence of a crime or makes connections to other linked crimes, and the forensic scientist provides information and expert opinion to investigators, solicitors, judges and juries which helps in determining the guilt or innocence of the accused.

Continuity of the forensic science evidence is of paramount importance and there is a necessity for accurate record keeping at every stage in order that the chain of custody of the exhibits can be shown in order that the integrity of the forensic evidence is maintained at all times. To this end the time, date and location of the receipt or subsequent movement of any forensic science exhibit must be meticulously maintained from the moment of seizure to its delivery at the laboratory and movement within, and continued up to its presentation at court if required.

The forensic scientist must make sure that the examination is complete and the tests performed have been done correctly, the interpretation of the scientific data is thorough and that the written report is correct and easily understood by the layman, and finally that the evidence given is complete, unbiased and truthful, anything less is not acceptable.

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Smoking can have serious effects on your life. The longer you smoke the more damage you do to your body and your health. Most people who begin smoking as teens say that they wish they had never started. The decision to start or continue smoking is all up to you and no one can make you stop, but you should think really hard about whether it is the best thing for your body and your life.

This is one thing my dad never thought of ….


“Smoking gives me more energy. I smoke to keep from slowing down. I reach for a cigarette when I need a lift. When I’m tired, smoking perks me up.”

Many people use tobacco like they use coffee: to help them wake up, get moving, keep going when they feel worn out. The nicotine in tobacco, like the caffeine in coffee, is a stimulant. It increases your heart rate and blood pressure. But you can find other ways to get more energy. Try doing these to see if they might help you if you decide to quit.

Things to Do

·         Get a good night’s sleep; you’re more likely to feel fresh and alert. Exercise regularly. Regular exercise raises your overall energy level, so you may feel less need for a boost.

·         If you start feeling sluggish, take a brisk walk instead of smoking. Moving around is a drug-free stimulant.

·         Eat regular, nutritious meals. Healthful foods are a great natural source of energy.

·         Drink lots of cold water. It will refresh you as it helps clear your body of nicotine.

·         Avoid getting bored, which can make you feel tired. Keep your mind active, perhaps by calling a friend, reading a new magazine, or playing a game.

“I like to touch and handle cigarettes. I feel more comfortable with a cigarette in my hand. I enjoy getting a cigarette out of the pack and lighting up. I like to watch the smoke when I exhale.”

Many smokers say they’ve gone back to smoking because “I had nothing to do with my hands.” “It just feels right to have a cigarette in my hand or mouth.”

Getting over this obstacle can make it easier to quit smoking and stay smoke-free. The tips below suggest other ways to satisfy the handling urge. Try them out, just to see if they might help you if you decide to quit.

Things to Do

·         Pick up a pen or pencil when you want to reach for a cigarette. Doodle, or make a list of your reasons for quitting.

·         Play with a coin, twist your ring, or handle whatever harmless object is nearby.

·         Put a plastic cigarette in your hand or mouth. Some have a minty taste to help you focus on how fresh your breath is without tobacco.

·         If all you miss is the touch of a real cigarette, go ahead and hold one. But if handling a cigarette makes you want to light up, stick with the substitutes.

·         Eat regular meals to avoid being hungry. Don’t confuse needing to eat with the desire to put a cigarette to your lips.

·         Take up a hobby that keeps your hands busy. Try knitting, carpentry, painting, or making bread.

·         Have a low-fat, low-sugar snack like carrot sticks, apple slices, or a bread stick. Suck on a sugar-free hard candy or mint.

“Smoking makes good times better. I want a cigarette most when I am comfortable and relaxed.”

Almost two out of three smokers say they just plain enjoy smoking. When you associate smoking with “the good times,” it can strengthen your smoking habit. But it can be easier to quit when you focus on enjoying yourself without tobacco. The tips below offer some ideas to help you miss cigarettes less, if you decide to quit.

Things to Do

·         Think about the pleasures of being tobacco-free:

o    Imagine how good foods would taste.

o    Imagine how fresh you would look and feel in social situations without smoking.

o    Think about how much easier it would be to walk, run, and climb stairs if your lungs were smoke-free.

o    Think about how good it would feel to be in control of the urge to smoke.

·         Think about how you could spend the money you save on cigarettes like a shopping spree, a night out, or a party to celebrate your success.

·         Remind yourself of the health benefits of quitting. Giving up cigarettes can help you enjoy life’s other pleasures for many years to come.

“Smoking helps me relax when I’m tense or upset. I light up a cigarette when something makes me angry. Smoking relaxes me in a stressful situation. When I’m depressed I reach for a cigarette to feel better.”

Lots of smokers use cigarettes to help them through bad times. If you use cigarettes as a crutch, finding another way to cope with stress can help if you decide to quit and can help you stay smoke free after you quit.

These are some things that have helped former smokers handle tense times without tobacco.

Things to Do

·         Use relaxation techniques to calm down when you are angry or upset. Deep breathing exercises, muscle relaxation, and imagining yourself in a peaceful setting can make you feel less stressed.

·         Exercise regularly. Studies show that exercise relieves tension and improves your mood.

·         Remember that smoking never solves the problem; figure out what will, and act on it.

·         Avoid or get out of stressful situations that might tempt you to smoke.

·         Get enough rest. Take time each day to relax, no matter how busy you are.

·         Enjoy relaxation. Take a long hot bath. Have a massage. Lie in a garden hammock. Listen to soothing music

“I crave cigarettes; smoking is an addiction. When I run out of cigarettes, it’s almost unbearable until I get more. I am very aware of not smoking when I don’t have a cigarette in my hand. When I haven’t smoked for a while I get a gnawing hunger for a cigarette.”

Many smokers are addicted or “hooked” on the nicotine in tobacco. When addicted smokers quit, many go through a withdrawal period. They may have both physical symptoms (feeling tired and irritable; headaches; nervousness) and an emotional need for a cigarette. One ex-smoker compared his continued craving for cigarettes to the longing you feel for a lost love.

It isn’t easy to get over an addiction to tobacco, but many people have succeeded; often on a second or third try. But once you’re back in control, you won’t have to beat smoking again. For many ex-smokers, that’s a powerful motivation to stay tobacco-free. The tips below include ideas to help addicted smokers make it through withdrawal and stay away from cigarettes for good. Would any of them work for you, if you decide to quit?

Things to Do

·         Ask your healthcare provider about using a nicotine patch or nicotine gum to help you avoid withdrawal symptoms.

·         Smoke more than you want to for a day or two before you quit. This “overkill” may spoil your taste for cigarettes.

·         Go “cold turkey.” Tapering off probably won’t work for you because the moment you put out one cigarette you begin to crave the next.

·         Tell family and friends you’ve quit smoking. Ask for help if you need it. Keep away from cigarettes completely. Get rid of ashtrays. Destroy any cigarettes you have. Try to avoid people who smoke and smoke-filled places like bars if you’re having withdrawal symptoms or cigarette cravings.

·         Think of yourself as a non-smoker. Hang up “No Smoking” signs. Don’t relive your days as a smoker.

·         Remember that physical withdrawal symptoms last about two weeks. Hang on!

“I smoke cigarettes automatically without being aware of it. I light up a cigarette without realizing I have one burning in an ashtray. I find a cigarette in my mouth and don’t remember putting it there.”

If you are this kind of smoker, you are no longer getting much satisfaction from your cigarettes. Unlike people who smoke for pleasure, you might not miss it very much if you stopped. The key would be breaking your smoking patterns. The tips below would help, if you decide to quit.


Things to Do

·         Cut down gradually. Smoke fewer cigarettes each day or only smoke them halfway down. Inhale less often and less deeply. After several months it should be easier to stop completely.

·         Change your smoking routines. Keep your cigarettes in a different place. Smoke with your opposite hand. Don’t do anything else while smoking. Limit smoking to certain places, such as outside or in one room at home.

·         When you want a cigarette, wait one minute. Try to think of something else to do instead of smoking.

·         Be aware of every cigarette you smoke. Ask yourself: Do I really want this cigarette? You may be surprised at how many you can easily pass up.

·         Set a date for giving up smoking altogether and stick to it.

Reasons for Not Smoking

There are numerous health problems associated with smoking. You probably already know most of this information but haven’t wanted to think about it. Have you experienced any of these problems?

·         Heart Attack

·         Stroke

·         Chronic Heart Disease

·         High LDL (“bad”) Cholesterol

·         Low HDL (“good”) Cholesterol

·         Cancer – lung, mouth, throat, stomach, breast

·         Emphysema

·         Asthma

·         Hypertension

·         Acute Bronchitis

·         Diabetes

·         Peptic Ulcer

Eighty to ninety percent of all smokers surveyed report that they would like to quit. More than three million people stop smoking each year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Quitting is a complex biological and psychological process and much more difficult than most people realize.

The Odds

Compared to nonsmokers, smokers are:

·         16 times more likely to get emphysema.

·         15 times more likely to get cancer.

·         10 times more likely to get bronchitis.

·         Twice as likely to have a heart attack.

Children of smokers have more respiratory illness than children of nonsmokers and are 8 times more likely to become smokers.


Reviewer Name: Godsey, Cynthia M.S., M.S.N., APRN;Lambert, J.G. M.D.
Date Last Reviewed: 11-05-2004
Published Date: 01-31-2005



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Spa Relaxing


Ageless beauty; how would one preserve one s youthful look? Every crowned beauty queen has her own beauty regime, it includes maintaining healthy slim body, healthy strong hair, oral health, and there‘s one more unique thing they preserve….

If you could answer quick as to what’s the biggest organ in your body..You’d know what I’ll be writing about in today s blog…


It keeps your insides from falling out. It helps you warm up when you’re cold and can cool you off when you’re hot. It lets you feel things by touch. It protects you.

What is this wondrous stuff?

Your skin, of course! And what does your skin ask for in return for all the wonderful things it does? just a little care and consideration. So let’s learn how to take good care of the skin you’re in.

No matter how you think of it, your skin is very important. It covers and protects everything inside your body. Without skin, people’s muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also:

  • protects our bodies
  • helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature
  • allows us to have the sense of touch

Don’t Miss Your Epidermis

The skin is made up of three layers, each with its own important parts. The layer on the outside is called the epidermis (say: eh-pih-dur-mis). The epidermis is the part of your skin you can see.

Look down at your hands for a minute. Even though you can’t see anything happening, your epidermis is hard at work. At the bottom of the epidermis, new skin cells are forming.

When the cells are ready, they start moving toward the top of your epidermis. This trip takes about 2 weeks to a month. As newer cells continue to move up, older cells near the top die and rise to the surface of your skin. What you see on your hands (and everywhere else on your body) are really dead skin cells.

These old cells are tough and strong, just right for covering your body and protecting it. But they only stick around for a little while. Soon, they’ll flake off. Though you can’t see it happening, every minute of the day we lose about 30,000 to 40,000 dead skin cells off the surface of our skin.

So just in the time it took you to read this far, you’ve probably lost about 40,000 cells. That’s almost 9 pounds (4 kilograms) of cells every year! But don’t think your skin might wear out someday. Your epidermis is always making new skin cells that rise to the top to replace the old ones. Most of the cells in your epidermis (95%) work to make new skin cells.

And what about the other 5%? They make a substance called melanin (say: mel-uh-nun). Melanin gives skin its color. The darker your skin is, the more melanin you have. When you go out into the sun, these cells make extra melanin to protect you from getting burned by the sun’s ultraviolet, or UV, rays.

That’s why your skin gets tan if you spend a lot of time in the sun. But even though melanin is mighty, it can’t shield you all by itself. You’ll want to wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now also can help prevent skin cancer when you get older.

The Dermis Is Under the Epidermis

The next layer down is the dermis (say: dur-mis). You can’t see your dermis because it’s hidden under your epidermis. The dermis contains nerve endings, blood vessels, oil glands, and sweat glands. It also contains collagen and elastin, which are tough and stretchy.

The nerve endings in your dermis tell you how things feel when you touch them. They work with your brain and nervous system, so that your brain gets the message about what you’re touching. Is it the soft fur of a cat or the rough surface of your skateboard?

Sometimes what you feel is dangerous, so the nerve endings work with your muscles to keep you from getting hurt. If you touch something hot, the nerve endings in your dermis respond right away: “Ouch! That’s hot!” The nerves quickly send this message to the brain or spinal cord, which then immediately commands the muscles to take your hand away. This all happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it.

Your dermis is also full of tiny blood vessels. These keep your skin cells healthy by bringing them the oxygen and nutrients they need and by taking away waste. These blood vessels are hard to see in kids, but you might get a better look if you check out your grandparents’ skin. As the dermis gets older, it gets thinner and easier to see through.

The dermis is home to the oil glands, too. These are also called sebaceous (say: sih-bay-shus) glands, and they are always producing sebum (say: see-bum). Sebum is your skin’s own natural oil. It rises to the surface of your epidermis to keep your skin lubricated and protected. It also makes your skin waterproof — as long as sebum’s on the scene, your skin won’t absorb water and get soggy.

You also have sweat glands on your epidermis. Even though you can’t feel it, you actually sweat a tiny bit all the time. The sweat comes up through pores (say: pors), tiny holes in the skin that allow it to escape. When the sebum meets the sweat, they form a protective film that’s a bit sticky.

An easy way to see this film in action is to pick up a pin with your fingers. Then wash your hands well with soap and water and dry them off completely. Now try to pick up that pin again. It won’t be so easy because your sticky layer is gone! Don’t worry — it will be back soon, as your sebaceous and sweat glands create more sticky stuff.

The Third Layer Is Subcutaneous Fat

The third and bottom layer of the skin is called the subcutaneous (say: sub-kyoo-tay-nee-us) layer. It is made mostly of fat and helps your body stay warm and absorb shocks, like if you bang into something or fall down. The subcutaneous layer also helps hold your skin to all the tissues underneath it.

This layer is where you’ll find the start of hair, too. Each hair on your body grows out of a tiny tube in the skin called a follicle (say: fah-lih-kul). Every follicle has its roots way down in the subcutaneous layer and continues up through the dermis.

You have hair follicles all over your body, except on your lips, the palms of your hands, and the soles of your feet. And you have more hair follicles in some places than in others — there are more than 100,000 follicles on your head alone!

Your hair follicles rely on your sebaceous glands to bring on the shine. Connected to each follicle in the dermis layer is a tiny sebaceous gland that releases sebum onto the hair. This lightly coats the hair with oil, giving it some shine and a little waterproofing.

Your skin care routine depends large on the kind of skin you have and determining this takes a keen eye and good judgment. Skin types vary according to the essential oils present in them and how they react to the weather conditions. Essentially, there are the following skin types:


Dry – Oily – Normal – Combination and Sensitive skin types.

§  Those belonging to the category of dry skin types are possessed of complexion that lacks both sebum and moisture. This kind of skin appears fine textured, transparent, patchy and fragile and has a tendency to flake and chap easily. Fine lines and wrinkles are therefore more obvious on dry skin. Dry skin can be determined if a person has flaky patches that disappear with regular moisturizing, finely textured skin with the pores not visible, tiny expression lines that do not disappear and the skin on the neck and cheeks appears chafed. Dry skin can be controlled through intensive skin care routine and plenty of hydration therapy, which includes a healthy balanced diet, lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, 7-8 glasses of water and at least eight hours of sleep.

§  Complexion care basics for all skin types includes proper hygiene, adequate rest and rejuvenation, a balanced and timely diet and regular exercise to keep the blood and oxygen supply in top form-and keep that natural glow ever present on your face!

§  Oily skin types are persons that have an over reactive sebaceous (oil-producing) glands. The abundance of these glands makes the face shiny especially down the central panel- also called the T-zone. This T-zone includes your nose, forehead and chin. This over activity of the sebaceous glands causes the pores of this skin type to become enlarged and thereby prone to skin disorders like blackheads, pimples and Acne. Oily skin types need to take extra special cleansing care to keep the pores unclogged and maintain a daily method of gentle cleansing to prevent accumulation of dirt on the skin surface. However, care must be taken not to zealously over do the cleansing bit as this can aggravate the condition further so the prudent beauty advice would be to cleanse only with a product meant for oily skin, not more than thrice a day. This should be followed by patting on a toner/astringent on the oily areas of your skin to help control the excess oil.

§  Sensitive skin types are those persons who have skin that reacts in a non-conventional way, both externally and internally, to changes in life. This skin type can be either oily and/or dry and tends to be easily disturbed by skin-care products and cosmetics. Sensitive skin can get blotchy and result in broken veins appearing on the surface of the skin while also showing increased redness or causing itchiness in a person. Consulting a dermatologist in serious cases is advisable as proper medical care may be needed to survive with such delicate skin condition and reactions as sensitive skin types are prone to


Skin Can Warm and Cool You

Your skin can help if you’re feeling too hot or too cold. Your blood vessels, hair, and sweat glands cooperate to keep your body at just the right temperature. If you were to run around in the heat, you could get overheated. If you play outside when it’s cold, your inner temperature could drop. Either way, your skin can help.

Your body is pretty smart. It knows how to keep your temperature right around 98.6° Fahrenheit (37° Celsius) to keep you and your cells healthy. Your skin can respond to messages sent out by your hypothalamus (say: hy-po-thal-uh-mus), the brain’s inner thermometer. If you’ve been running around on a hot day, your blood vessels get the signal from the hypothalamus to release some of your body’s heat. They do this by bringing warm blood closer to the surface of your skin. That’s why you sometimes get a red face when you run around.

To cool you down, sweat glands also swing into action by making lots of sweat to release body heat into the air. The hotter you are, the more sweat your glands make! Once the sweat hits the air, it evaporates (this means that it changes from a liquid to a vapor) off your skin, and you cool down.

What about when you’re ice-skating or sledding? When you’re cold, your blood vessels keep your body from losing heat by narrowing as much as possible and keeping the warm blood away from the skin’s surface. You might notice tiny bumps on your skin. Most kids call these goosebumps, but the fancy name for them is the pilomotor (say: py-lo-mo-ter) reflex. The reflex makes special tiny muscles called the erector pili (say: ee-rek-tur pie-lie) muscles pull on your hairs so they stand up very straight.

Keep It Clean!

Unlike other organs (like your lungs, heart, and brain), your skin likes a good washing. When you wash your skin, use water and a mild soap. And don’t forget to cover scrapes and cuts with gauze or a bandage. This keeps the dirt out and helps prevent infections. It’s just one way to be kind to the skin you’re in!

Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: March 2007

Why Be Nice to Your Skin?

Like the heart, stomach, and brain, your skin is an organ. In fact, it’s the largest organ in your body, but it’s still easy to take skin for granted. Unless there’s a problem, you may not think about your skin very much. But skin has an important job to do.

Your skin is constantly protecting you. Your skin keeps infections out of your body and keeps you from getting sick. When you take care of your skin, you’re helping your skin do its job. And taking care of your skin today will help prevent future problems, like wrinkles and even skin cancer.


Clean Skin Is Happy Skin

One simple way to take care of your skin is to keep it clean. Keeping your hands clean is especially important because your hands can spread germs to the skin on other parts of your body.

When washing your hands, use water that’s comfortably warm. Wet your hands, then lather up with a mild soap. You should lather and rub everywhere, including the palms, the wrists, between the fingers, and under the nails. Rinse well, dry thoroughly with a clean towel, and you’re done!

You’ll also want to use water that’s warm, not too hot, when you take a shower or bath. Use a gentle soap to clean your body. Don’t forget under your arms and behind your ears! Your face needs attention, especially as you enter puberty and the skin on your face gets more oily. It’s a good idea to wash your face once or twice daily with warm water and a mild cleanser.

If you look in the drugstore, you’ll see shelf after shelf of skin care products, but kids don’t usually need anything more than a gentle soap. Talk to a parent or your doctor if you have questions about what to use on your skin.

If you have dry, flaky, or itchy skin, you might use a moisturizing lotion or cream. When choosing a moisturizer, pick one without a lot of colors and perfumes. Petroleum jelly can work for some kids. If you are worried about pimples, look for a moisturizer that is non-comedogenic (won’t cause pimples).

With pimples, you might think that scrubbing your face is the way to get rid of them. But actually, your skin will be less likely to break out if you clean it gently, using your fingertips, not a rough washcloth. If you have trouble with pimples, talk with your doctor about which cleansers are best to use.

Allergies to Skin Care Products

Sometimes when you use a new kind of soap or other skin product, your skin may get irritated or you may get an allergic reaction. If you get a rash or if your skin feels itchy, hot, dry, or like it’s burning, tell an adult. Stop using the product and don’t forget that it caused a reaction. You don’t want to use it again or buy a product with the same active ingredient.

To test a new product, place a tiny bit of it on the inside of your wrist or arm. Watch for any redness or irritation over the next 24 hours. If your skin becomes red or irritated, don’t use the product. Sometimes, your skin is fine with a new product the first time, or few times, you use it, but then your skin gets red or irritated later on. You’ll want to stop using the product whenever redness or irritation occurs. 




Screening Your Skin From Damage

There is one product that everyone needs: sunscreen. Even if your skin is naturally dark, you still need to use a sunscreen. Protecting your skin from the sun prevents sunburn, which hurts and is a kind of skin damage. Sunscreen also can help prevent wrinkles when you get older and can decrease the risk of skin cancer, which is caused by exposure to the sun’s harmful rays.

Choose a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or 45, and apply it evenly. Try not to miss any spots, such as your neck or the middle of your back. Have a friend or your parent help you with the hard-to-reach spots. Follow the directions on the sunscreen, which often recommend reapplying it, especially after swimming or sweating.

Because sunscreen cannot protect your skin completely from the sun, it’s also a good idea to wear a brimmed hat and use a lip balm containing sunscreen. If you need more protection from the sun, wear long sleeves and pants. Also, avoid the sun between 10 AM and 2 PM.

Soothing Skin That’s Sore

Everybody gets little scrapes and cuts on their skin. When this happens to you, be sure to wash the area with warm water and a mild soap. Talk to one of your parents about whether to use an antibiotic (say: an-tie-bye-ah-tik) cream or ointment. This can kill germs at the site of the cut and prevent an infection. Covering a cut with a bandage helps keep it clean.

When you have a more serious cut, you may need to go to the doctor or the emergency department. A deep cut might need stitches to heal properly. Instead of stitching a cut together with special thread, in some cases, doctors can use a special kind of glue.

Hot Stuff

Burns are another serious problem for your skin. Prevent them by staying away from fire (such as matches, candles, and fireplaces) and steering clear of stoves, irons, and other sources of heat. If you accidentally get burned, tell a grown-up so he or she can get you the care you need.

Solving Skin Problems

Bug bites, bee stings, and poison ivy are all common skin problems. Try not to scratch! Scratching can tear your skin and is another way for germs to get in there and possibly cause an infection. Your mom or dad can help you by applying an ointment or cream to fight the itch.

If it’s chickenpox that’s making you itch, your mom or dad can help you apply some calamine lotion. Taking a bath with a little oatmeal in it – or an oatmeal-based bath powder – also can make you more comfortable. Scratching chickenpox can cause infections. Scratching also can cause scars where your chickenpox were.

Eczema (say: ek-zuh-muh) is another itchy problem. You’re more likely to have this dry skin condition if you have asthma, hay fever, or other allergies. If a moisturizing cream doesn’t work, you may need to see your doctor or a dermatologist (say: dur-muh-tah-luh-jist), a doctor who specializes in skin care.

Urticaria (say: ur-tuh-kar-ee-ah), also known as hives, is a type of skin rash that causes red blotches or bumps that itch. Hives can be caused by an infection, or an allergic reaction to an insect bite, or something you ate, breathed in, or touched. Your mom or dad might give you medicine, such as an antihistamine, to reduce the swelling or itching related to the hives. If someone has hives and other symptoms, such as trouble breathing, the person needs to go to the emergency department.

You may not think of it as skin, but you have skin on your scalp, where your hair grows. Sometimes, this skin can get flaky and fall off. This might be dandruff, the little white flakes you can sometimes see if you are wearing a dark-colored shirt. Talk to your mom or dad about this and they can buy you a special shampoo, or talk to the doctor about getting a medicated shampoo to control dandruff.

Super Skin!

We’ve been talking a lot about the problems your skin can have, but don’t forget how super your skin is. Your skin has amazing healing ability. Remember the last time you had a cut? What happened to it? Let us guess – your skin completely healed or left only a small scar? See what we mean? Your skin is simply skintastic!

Reviewed by: Patrice Hyde, MD
Date reviewed: September 2007

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The fourth planet from the Sun, just past the Earth. Often called the ‘Red Planet’, due to its vivid colour.


*                    See the longest ever canyon system, stretching over 5,000km (3,100 miles)

*                    Visit the Solar System’s largest volcano – over 50 times bigger than those on Earth

*                    Decide for yourself whether the Red Planet once contained life




Mars has some of the most spectacular scenery in the Solar System.

Valles Marineres
A giant canyon system stretching over 5,000km (3,100 miles) along the equator with an average depth of 6km. See if you can spot the erosion channels that could reveal the planet’s watery past.

Olympus Mons
The largest volcano in the Solar System. Reaching 27km (17 miles) high and 700km (435 miles) across. But don’t be afraid – this monstrous volcano is now extinct, so your visit will be a safe one.

The face
In 1976, Viking Orbiter 1 sent pictures of a very unusual rock formation. When the Sun strikes Mars at a certain angle, the shadow looks like a human face.

Is this proof of alien intelligence at work? Or is it just chance that the rugged surface of Mars conjures up this image? Until there is more evidence, you will have to decide for yourself.


It’s usually claimed that Mars was named after the Roman god of war because of its angry red colour. But early on in the Roman empire, Mars was worshipped as a god of growth and fertility.


Mars’ red colour, though more pronounced when seen through a telescope, is still noticeable with the naked eye.

Mars can often be spotted from Earth. Usually it travels across the sky from east to west. However, for 70 days of its two year orbit, it reverses direction across the sky. This is the best times to observe Mars, because it’s at the closest point to Earth.


Journey time · 5.25 Earth months
1 Martian year · 2.11 Earth years
Contacting home · Time lag = 25.4 minutes

Before you leave
Mars is closer in temperature to Earth than any of the other planet in the Solar System. But don’t let this catch you off your guard. Mars’ weather is even more unpredictable than our own.

We recommend a summer visit, when the temperature can reach a pleasant 20ºC. But keep an eye on the weather forecast! Storms can sweep across the whole planet. Within days, the temperature can plummet by 20 degrees.

Travelers’ in the winter months should note that Mars can reach a bitter -140ºC.

One final word of warning – make sure you are prepared for dust storms. Tornadoes as large as eight kilometers high have been seen causing havoc across the Martian landscape.

When you arrive
Your first decision when you arrive will be which hemisphere to head for. The southern hemisphere is higher, and has a more rugged landscape.

The northern hemisphere lies an average of five kilometres lower. We know that the surface there is younger as there are fewer impact craters.

There is no evidence of plate tectonics on Mars. This means that growing volcanoes aren’t disrupted by surface movements. So they can grow 100 times larger than on Earth, like Olympus Mons. But don’t worry; the volcanoes on Mars aren’t active.

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Glory of architect, glory of painter, and sculptor, and bard,
Living forever in temple and picture and statue and song, —
Look how the world with the lights that they lit is illumined and starred,
Brief was the flame of their life, but the lamps of their art burn long!

Where is the Master of Music, and how has he vanished away?
Where is the work that he wrought with his wonderful art in the air?
Gone, — it is gone like the glow on the cloud at the close of the day!
The Master has finished his work, and the glory of music is — where?

Once, at the wave of his wand, all the billows of musical sound
Followed his will, as the sea was ruled by the prophet of old:
Now that his hand is relaxed, and his rod has dropped to the ground,
Silent and dark are the shores where the marvellous harmonies rolled!

Nay, but not silent the hearts that were filled by that life-giving sea;
Deeper and purer forever the tides of their being will roll,
Grateful and joyful, O Master, because they have listened to thee, —
The glory of music endures in the depths of the human soul.

Master of Music by Henry Van Dyke


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